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Beijing - A Concise History
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He has been appointed as visiting fellow of the University of Cambridge, visiting scholar of the University of Melbourne and the National University of Singapore, and visiting Associate Professor of National Taiwan University. Prior to joining the Faculty of Law, Dr Ng has served in the legal, business and finance sectors for more than 15 years. As a solicitor, Dr Ng specialized in corporate and commercial practice.
After leaving the private legal practice, he served in a listed multinational corporation as its Chief Investment Officer and Finance Director, focusing on mergers, acquisitions and direct investment transactions in China and Asia. It was deemed that the geographical political powers in the world were divided into two camps: the enemy camp consisted of DiXiuFan imperialist, revisionist and reactionary forces and countries ; the friend camp consisted of Asian-African-Latin American it refers chiefly to the developing countries and China.
In this setup, China believed that there were fierce class-wars operating in the world of that time. DiXiuFan was trying to seek any possibility to eliminate Communist China by means of methods as diverse as military invasion and peaceful evolution. Therefore, anything related to the West and Taiwan for example, Western media outlets such as Voice Of America and the British Broadcasting Corporation was assumed to contain evil intentions and conspiracies, or dangerous capitalist propaganda.
- Routledge Studies in the Modern History of Asia | Tanum nettbokhandel.
- ISBN 13: 9780415399067.
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The people who had Haiwai Guanxi were considered to have complicated social and historical backgrounds, and were suspected of collaboration with the enemy; they would not be trusted or employed because of these assumptions. Under such circumstances, intercultural couples who had married before this period were in a very difficult situation. Some Western wives also suffered a lot from their husbands. She had to escape back to Canada from Kunming in the rear with two children during pregnancy.
Later, when Mr. Tang went to visit her, she did not return to China with him as she was scared of the hardship. As Mr. Tang did not want to leave China, they separated. She was mistakenly regarded as an international spy merely because she was not Chinese. After suffering such wrongful treatment, she committed suicide by slitting her wrists.
During this particular period, many Russian women married Chinese men and Chinese women also married Soviet men. The ones who have severe situation must be cleaned out from cadre team. Although having Haiwai Guanxi had never been regulated officially and publicly as a crime, the ordinary Chinese people of the time who had been educated for many years in the concept of Class Struggle were inclined to equate having Haiwai Guanxi with contact with the enemy.
It was therefore universally acknowledged by Chinese people that they should maintain sharp vigilance of those who had Haiwai Guanxi. Some posts which needed complete secrecy, such as high-tech national defence scientific research and factories, air force, etc. Personnel and organisation departments did not employ people with Haiwai Guanxi either. Even Guangdong, the famous home town of overseas Chinese, could not escape from this policy.
In this year, the Department of Civil Affairs in Zijin County transacted a marriage registration for an American Chinese husband and his local Chinese wife.
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The Director of the Department of Civil Affairs at Zijin County was expelled from the Party and discharged from his public employment, and more than twenty other staff members were involved. With the influence of this affair, international marriage registration and even the marriage between local Chinese and illegal immigrants from other countries were prohibited in Guangdong province. It was not until that Guangdong province secretly resumed marriage registration for local Cantonese and overseas Chinese as well as compatriots from Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Macau, which allowed many international lovers to finally marry.
From to , Guangdong transacted international marriage cases an average of annually including Chinese locals with foreigners, Chinese of foreign nationalities, overseas Chinese, and compatriots from Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Macau. National conditions sometimes played a decisive role in determining marital choices.
Before the end of the Cultural Revolution in , marriages with foreigners were regarded as outrageous treachery. Henceforth, the history of prohibitions and restrictions upon transnational marriages in modern and contemporary China became coherent again. In , China implemented its Reform and Opening Policy [ccxvii] , and on 1 January China and the United States formally established diplomatic relations.
The marriage registration, notarisation or authentication of marital status transacted by Chinese consuls for native or foreign citizens has increased annually. From the aspect of international law, the entry of China into the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations marked that the Chinese consular judicial system was in line with international standards. During this period, China also signed, revised or resigned various bilateral consular contracts or agreements with foreign countries. Based on these, Chinese consuls can transact marriage registration, and do the work of notarisation or authentication of marriage status for native or foreign citizens on a larger scale.
Along with acting institutions as consuls in diplomatic missions mutually established by China and countries, the platform for the development of consular relations between China and other countries has been enlarged.http://teksty.kovalev.com.ua/assets/chloroquine-und-plaquenil-tabletten.php
East Asia - Wikipedia
Since then many international marriages have been transacted in China. The Reform and Open and the foreign policies were the precondition and basis of the emergence of international marriage in contemporary China. China has been obtaining a secure and reliable international environment of lasting peace and stability which has propelled the economy forward at a high speed in China and led to an increase in international marriages there.
Ideas and operations in transnational marriages gradually changed the long-established notion of closing off China. As long as both men and women met the requirements of the Marriage Law, no organisation or person had the right to interfere, as it was deemed an infringement upon free marriage. Since , China has achieved social stability and economic prosperity through reform, opening up to the outside world and modernising.
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The national strength of China has increased greatly and the number of foreigners, Chinese who are foreign nationals, overseas Chinese and compatriots from Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Macau coming to China has been increasing year after year. More and more of them are coming to China to travel, visit families, run businesses, and run factories. Meanwhile, Chinese men and women have more opportunities to associate with foreigners. With the adoptions of flexible policies in relation to international marriage registration, the number of international marriages between Chinese and foreigners in mainland China has been increasing enormously, and its growth rate has been keeping at a rate of 10 times the previous year.
In and In this period, laws related to international marriage were improved gradually. At the beginning of the Reform and Open policy implementation in , a Chinese male graduate student applied to marry a French female student who was studying in China, however the local government could not establish legal grounds for the marriage and had to report the case to the Ministry of Civil Affairs. On September 10, and April 28, respectively, the Chinese government revised and supplemented the Marriage Law.
The Chinese Ministry of Civil Affairs gradually established and standardised the regulations of international marriage between mainland Chinese and foreigners, Chinese with foreign nationals, overseas Chinese, and compatriots from Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Macau from onwards.
Meanwhile, the marriage registration authorities all over China also gradually resumed their handling of international marriages. This was the first special law regulating international marriage between Chinese citizens and non-Chinese individuals in contemporary China, Provisions for the registration of marriage between Chinese citizens and foreigners, was synchronously issued in the same year [ccxxvii] , and was followed by the successive promulgation of related regulations on administering marriages between mainland Chinese and compatriots from Hong Kong, Taiwan and Macau.
ISBN 13: 9780415399067
Regulations on Marriage Registration, which was implemented on October 1 of the same year laying down specific descriptions about marriage registration, notarisation or authentication of marital status by Chinese consuls for native or foreign citizens. Neither do I have lineal nor consanguineous relations within 3 generations with the other party. The same applied to the transaction of notarisation or authentication for marriage parties within the Chinese territories.
Subsequently, she was punished with a 2-year regime of reeducation through labour and her French lover was banished from China.
Related Beijing – A Concise History (Routledge Studies in the Modern History of Asia)
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